International Society For Contact Lens Research: The First 30 years

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Many When respondents were asked to rate their satisfaction with the use of glasses and CLs on a scale of 1 to 5 , mean satisfaction among the entire group was slightly above neutral for glasses 3. When evaluated separately based on CL use, the group with no CL experience was more satisfied with glasses.

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In contrast, the respondents who reported continuous CL use were least satisfied with glasses, as expected. Degree of satisfaction with CL use also differed between continuous and intermittent users, with continuous users reporting greater satisfaction Table 3. The survey included a question for non-CL users both those who used them previously and those who never used them regarding their reasons for avoiding CL use. Table 4 shows the importance levels of the possible causes determined according to the focus group interviews.

The most important reason for avoiding CL use was the belief that CL use is difficult. The second and third reasons were the convenience of wearing glasses, and the opinion that CLs harm the eyes. All of the non-CL users were also asked to indicate their level of concern about the difficulties that can be experienced while using CLs. The potential difficulties that have been or may be experienced while using CLs were identified and listed after the focus group interviews Table 5.

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Mean values indicate that the biggest concern is the possibility of eye infection due to CL use. Another potential problem mentioned during the focus group interviews was difficulty with near vision while wearing CLs, but this was not a concern for the non-CL users. Similarly, the beliefs that CLs may lead to refractive error progression, cause cataracts, and prevent laser eye surgery in the future caused less concern than the mean value of 3.

Finally, non-CL users were asked to state the source of their concerns about CL use and rank the information sources identified in the focus group interviews based on their importance. The next section of the questionnaire consisted of questions for CL users. The response options for this question were based on findings from the focus group interviews.

Accordingly, most of the participants The participants were asked to rank the factors that influenced their decision to wear CLs in order of importance. The most influential reason was that they disliked and were tired of glasses. Other reasons included esthetic concerns and the inconveniences of glasses limited vision, fogging, getting wet in the rain, etc. Table 8. The least common problems were ocular surface scratches, problems with near vision, and blurred vision.

Eye infection, which was the biggest concern of non-CL users, had never occurred in Similarly, the fear that a lens may adhere to the eye was shown to be a misconception that should be dispelled, as most CL users did not experience this problem Table 9. When the CL users were asked where they obtained information about how to use CLs, CLs are temporary prostheses placed on the eye for optical, esthetic, or therapeutic reasons and are considered optically and esthetically superior to glasses.

Similarly, our results showed that among all participants, the mean level of satisfaction was 3. In spite of their advantages, preference for CLs may not be as high as expected in Turkey. In fact, Based on the inclinations of the group that did not prefer CLs, their main reason for avoidance was the belief that CL use is difficult, and their main concern was the possibility of eye infection while using CLs.

Among the CL users, Other reasons included esthetic concerns about wearing glasses and the related discomfort limited vision, fogging, getting wet in the rain, etc. On the other hand, CLs are in direct contact with corneal surface and eyelids. Each CL user differs in terms of occupation, environmental conditions, tear film properties, corneal gradient and diameter, and anatomical features such as interpalpebral distance and eyelid shape.

Therefore, CLs should be prescribed by an ophthalmologist who can select suitable materials, surface and edge designs, and curvature radius based on variable environmental conditions and eye anatomy and physiology. In best practice, the ophthalmologist chooses a lens according to these individual variables and allows the patient to wear it for a time in order to evaluate compatibility with the ocular surface and eyelids and confirm the refractory power of the lens. After this trial period, the patient is provided a basic theoretical and practical training focusing heavily on cleaning, and finally the lens is prescribed.

If CLs are used without the supervision and education provided by ophthalmologists, these important steps are neglected, which greatly increases the likelihood of complications that threaten ocular health, such as corneal ulcers. However, available data indicate that CLs are being sold without prescription and used inappropriately in Turkey.

In addition, only Similarly, many of the participants in our study The remarkably low rates of regular follow-up in both studies indicate an important deficit. Donshik et al. Although many others have made great contributions to the field, it is beyond the scope of this project to cover them all. I hope you enjoy and learn from this salute to our profession. Viva la Contact Lens! Jack Schaeffer, O. By , contact lens wear had become more practical and more comfortable than in previous decades, and as many as 2 million people worldwide were successfully wearing contact lenses.

However, corneal hypoxia or oxygen deprivation of the cornea continued to be a serious impediment to safe and successful contact lens wear, even with the new soft hydrogel lenses just entering the market. As early as , Edward Goodlaw, O. Further research proved that to be correct.

The quest to deliver more oxygen to the cornea was on. Over the next three decades, the ranks of contact lens wearers would grow to more than 80 million, thanks in large part to the contributions of oxygen researchers in academia and clinical practice. The Berkeley Group. From the mids through the mids, a group of researchers at the University of California at Berkeley worked tirelessly investigating the amount of oxygen needed by the cornea during contact lens wear and the effects of various types of contact lenses on oxygen transmission.

Irving Fatt, Ph. Hill, O. Fatt, whose expertise was in petroleum and bioengineering, took an engineering approach to the problem, measuring oxygen flux with electrodes.

He realized that the same principles of fluid dynamics applied whether one was looking at petroleum, oxygen through plastic packaging or oxygen through a hydrogel device on the eye. He also discovered that oxygen transmissibility of hydrogel lenses is proportional to polymer water content and the reciprocal of lens thickness, 2 findings that were later confirmed by his colleagues.

Hill took a more physiological approach, exposing rabbit corneas to variously calibrated oxygen chambers and comparing the rates of swelling in those chambers to those of various contact lenses to determine the amount of oxygen being transmitted.

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This became known as the equivalent oxygen percentage EOP method and is still in use today. Hill later moved to Ohio State University OSU , where he was a researcher, faculty member and eventually dean of the school of optometry. He continued his work on contact lenses, oxygen, and on the tear film and dry eye. Hill is renowned for establishing a solid basic science foundationbut one that always had a practical bent.

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A superb educator, he always sought to translate his research findings in a way that would benefit clinical practice. At OSU, Dr. Hill collaborated with William Joe Benjamin, O. Benjamin continues to carry the oxygen mantle. Hills and Dr.

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Fatts oxygen measurements relate to one another. People like to argue over which method is better, but the truth is that both are very useful and have complemented each other nicely, Dr. Benjamin said. He believes that Dr. Hills greatest legacy may be that he was able to steer optometric research out of the limited realm of physiological optics and into the physiology of the entire eye, including the ocular surface.

We take it for granted now, but that was a huge jump for the field. Fatt and Hill were not the only bright minds at Berkeley focused on the oxygen issue. Senior faculty members Robert Mandell, O.